PROPER Formula


To start, the PROPER formula in Excel is a text function that converts the first letter of each word in a text string to uppercase, and all other letters to lowercase. This function is especially useful when you need to correct the capitalization in a spreadsheet where all the data was entered in uppercase or lowercase.


The primary purpose of the PROPER formula is to convert the text data into proper case, also known as title case. This is particularly useful for cleaning up data and making it more presentable, whether it’s customer names, addresses, or product titles.


To use the PROPER formula, the syntax is straightforward:



The PROPER formula has just one parameter:

  1. text: The text you want to convert to proper case.


When you use the PROPER formula, it returns the input text string, but with the first letter of each word converted to uppercase and all other letters to lowercase.

Usage notes

When you’re using the PROPER formula, it’s essential to remember that it considers any character other than a letter as a word delimiter. This means numbers, punctuation, and spaces will trigger the next letter to be capitalized.


The PROPER formula is available in all versions of Excel, making it a staple in your excel functions list.

Example #1

For our first example, let’s assume you have a list of names in cell A1: “john doe”. Using the PROPER formula, we convert this to proper case:


This formula will return “John Doe”.

Example #2

For our next example, let’s say cell A2 contains the string “123 main street”. Applying the PROPER formula, we get:


This will return “123 Main Street”.

Example #3

If we have an address in cell A3: “456 park ave, new york”, applying the PROPER formula gives us:


This will return “456 Park Ave, New York”.

Example #4

If we have the text “excel formulas for data analysis” in cell A4, and we apply the PROPER formula:


The result will be “Excel Formulas For Data Analysis”.

Example #5

For our final example, let’s convert the lower-case string “advanced excel functions” in cell A5:


This will return “Advanced Excel Functions”.

Tips and tricks

One great tip when using this formula is combining it with the TRIM function to remove any extra spaces. This helps in maintaining a clean and properly formatted data set.


One limitation of this formula is that it does not work well with abbreviations or acronyms since it will lowercase all characters except the first one.

Common errors and solutions

A common error is applying this formula to numbers or special characters. Since these are not considered letters, the function may not give the expected result. The solution is to use the formula only on text data.

Best Practices

Best practices for using this formula include always checking your data first to make sure it’s compatible with the function and using it in combination with other text functions to clean and format your data efficiently.

List of Related functions

This formula is often used alongside several other text functions in Excel, including:

  1. LOWER: Converts all text to lowercase.
  2. UPPER: Converts all text to uppercase.
  3. TRIM: Removes extra spaces from text.

Frequently Used with the formulas

The PROPER formula is commonly used with data cleaning and formatting functions such as:

  1. CLEAN: Removes all non-printable characters from text.
  2. SUBSTITUTE: Replaces existing text with new text in a text string.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Can I use the PROPER formula on numbers?

The PROPER formula is intended for text data. Applying it to numbers will not result in any change.

Q. What happens when I use PROPER on a cell that contains both text and numbers?

The PROPER formula will capitalize the first letter after any non-letter character, including numbers, spaces, and punctuation.

Learn to use the Excel PROPER formula to clean and format your data. With this function, you can convert text to proper case, enhancing your spreadsheet’s readability and professionalism.

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