SWITCH Formula


The SWITCH formula is a powerful, yet often underused tool within Excel’s array of formulas. This formula helps in creating formulas in Excel and advances your Excel functions for data analysis.


The SWITCH formula simplifies the process of choosing between several outcomes. It is a unique formula designed to evaluate a list of expressions and return a corresponding result.


The syntax of the SWITCH formula is straightforward:

=SWITCH(expression, value1, result1, [value2, result2], ..., [default])


Here are the parameters that the SWITCH formula uses:

  • expression – The value or expression you want to test.
  • value1, value2, ... – The values you want to compare with the expression.
  • result1, result2, ... – The results that correspond to each value.
  • default – The value returned if no match is found. This is optional.


The SWITCH formula will return the result that corresponds to the first value that matches the expression. If no match is found and a default value is provided, it will return the default value.

Usage notes

When you’re dealing with many conditions, the SWITCH formula can make your spreadsheet cleaner and easier to understand. Instead of nesting multiple IF statements, you can list all the conditions in one SWITCH formula.


The SWITCH formula is available in Excel 2016 and newer versions.

Example #1

Let’s say we have different codes for different departments in a company, and we want to get the department name from the code:

=SWITCH(A2, "HR", "Human Resources", "FIN", "Finance", "IT", "Information Technology", "Unknown Department")

Example #2

You can use the SWITCH formula for numerical conditions too. For example, assigning grades based on scores:

=SWITCH(A2, 1, "Poor", 2, "Fair", 3, "Good", 4, "Excellent", "Not Rated")

Example #3

The SWITCH formula can also help when creating an interactive Excel calculator. For example, calculating prices based on selected product:

=SWITCH(B2, "ProductA", C2*10, "ProductB", C2*15, "ProductC", C2*20, "Product not found")

Example #4

You can use the SWITCH formula in business scenarios. For instance, determining shipping cost based on location:

=SWITCH(D2, "USA", E2*0.1, "Canada", E2*0.2, "Other", E2*0.3, "Location not recognized")

Example #5

The SWITCH formula can even handle text. For instance, mapping customer feedback to scores:

=SWITCH(E2, "Very Satisfied", 5, "Satisfied", 4, "Neutral", 3, "Dissatisfied", 2, "Very Dissatisfied", 1, "No Feedback Given")

Tips and tricks

To get the most out of the SWITCH formula, always list your conditions in the order you want them checked. And don’t forget to provide a default value to handle situations when no match is found.


The SWITCH formula can’t handle range conditions or wildcards. It only matches exact values.

Common errors and solutions

A common error when using the SWITCH formula is forgetting to add a default value. If no match is found, and no default value is provided, Excel will return a #N/A error.

Best Practices

When using the SWITCH formula, it’s essential to organize your conditions properly, make sure your conditions are mutually exclusive, and always provide a default value.

List of Related functions

Related Excel formulas include:

  • IF: This is the standard IF formula.
  • AND, OR: These formulas test if all conditions or any condition, respectively, is TRUE.
  • CHOOSE: This formula selects one of up to 254 values based on the index number.

Frequently Used with the formulas

The SWITCH formula is often used with other Excel formulas like COUNTIF, SUMIF, AVERAGEIF, and many others for advanced data analysis.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. How many conditions can the SWITCH formula handle?

The SWITCH formula can handle up to 254 value-result pairs.

Q. What happens if no conditions in the SWITCH formula match?

If no conditions match and no default value is provided, the SWITCH formula will return a #N/A error.

Q. Can I use the SWITCH formula with other Excel formulas?

Yes, you can use the SWITCH formula in conjunction with many other Excel formulas.

Master the SWITCH formula in Excel and streamline your data analysis tasks with our comprehensive guide.

Visit our YouTube channel to learn step-by-step video tutorials