# PMT formula

## Definition

To kick things off, let’s define what the PMT formula in Excel means. Essentially, PMT is a financial formula. It calculates the constant periodic payment for a loan or investment with a constant interest rate. This payment covers both the principal and the interest, given a fixed period.

## Purpose

Now, why would you want to use the PMT function? Well, it’s extremely useful when you’re trying to figure out the consistent payment for loans such as mortgages or car loans. Additionally, it’s a fantastic tool for financial planning, helping you to understand the cost of your future commitments.

## Syntax

Understanding the syntax is vital to use the PMT function effectively. It’s structured as follows:

`=PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])`

In Excel, all formulas begin with an equals sign. ‘PMT’ is the name of the function, and within the parentheses, you input your arguments.

## Parameters

There are five parameters you can use within the PMT function. The first three are required, while the last two are optional. Here they are:

• rate: This represents the interest rate for the period.
• nper: This is the total number of payment periods.
• pv: The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.
• fv (optional): The future value or cash balance you want to attain after the final payment.
• type (optional): This dictates when the payments are due. Inputting ‘0’ means at the end of the period, while ‘1’ means at the start.

## Returns

So, what does the PMT function return? It gives you the constant periodic payment amount for a loan or investment, based on the inputs you provide.

## Usage Notes

One key point to remember when using the PMT function is that Excel usually returns the result as a negative number. That’s because it considers the payment as an outgoing amount. If you want the result as a positive number, you can change the sign by adding a minus before the function, like =-PMT(rate, nper, pv).

## Availability

You’ll be pleased to know that the PMT function is widely available in Excel, regardless of your operating system. Whether you’re using Windows, macOS, or even Excel Online, you can tap into the power of the PMT function.

### Example #1

Let’s see the PMT function in action. Assume you take a loan of \$10,000 at an annual interest rate of 5% for a 2-year period. The PMT function in this case will look like:

`=PMT(5%/12, 2*12, 10000)`

This formula returns -\$438.71, meaning you need to make monthly payments of \$438.71 to pay off your loan.

### Example #2

In another scenario, let’s say you want to save \$20,000 over 5 years in an account with an annual interest rate of 3%. How much should you save each month? The PMT function would look like this:

`=PMT(3%/12, 5*12, 0, -20000)`

This formula will return -\$332.14, indicating you need to deposit \$332.14 every month to reach your goal.

### Example #3

Suppose you have a 4-year car loan of \$15,000 with a 7% annual interest rate, and payments are due at the start of the period. The PMT function in this case would look like:

`=PMT(7%/12, 4*12, 15000, ,1)`

This will return -\$359.89 as the monthly payment amount.

### Example #4

Let’s imagine you want to pay off a student loan of \$25,000 over 10 years with an annual interest rate of 6%, and the payments are due at the end of the period. The PMT function would be:

`=PMT(6%/12, 10*12, 25000)`

The formula returns -\$277.51 as your monthly payment.

### Example #5

Finally, let’s consider a scenario where you want to save \$50,000 in 20 years with a yearly interest rate of 4%, making deposits at the beginning of each month. The PMT formula is:

`=PMT(4%/12, 20*12, 0, -50000, 1)`

This will tell you to save \$126.68 per month to reach your target.

## Tips and Tricks

One handy tip for the PMT function is to format the result cell to a currency format for a better presentation of your result. Remember, Excel displays the PMT result as a negative number by default, but you can change this if desired.

## Limitations

However, the PMT function has its limitations. It assumes a constant interest rate and periodic payments, which may not always be the case in real-world scenarios. Plus, it doesn’t account for fees or other charges.

## Common Errors and Solutions

A common error is ‘#VALUE!’. This typically occurs when the supplied arguments are non-numeric or if the ‘nper’ is zero. You can solve this by ensuring that all input values are numeric and the ‘nper’ is greater than zero.

## Best Practices for PMT function

For best practices, always check your formula for errors. Use consistent and meaningful variable names, and ensure you understand the impact of the ‘type’ argument.

## List of Related Functions

Excel offers several other financial functions, such as IPMT (Interest Payment), PPMT (Principal Payment), and FV (Future Value).

## Frequently Used with the Formulas

PMT often pairs with other functions like IF and ROUND to create more complex formulas.

### Q. Why is my PMT result negative?

Excel views the payment as outgoing money, hence the negative number.

### Q. Can I use PMT for varying interest rates?

No, PMT assumes a constant interest rate.

### Q. How can I make my PMT formula result positive?

Simply add a minus before the function like =-PMT(rate, nper, pv).

In conclusion, mastering the PMT function is a valuable tool in financial planning, helping you make informed decisions about loans and savings.